Sensitivity analysis of parameters affecting nano-polymer solution for water shutoff in carbonate rocks

Sakar Soka, Hiwa Sidiq

Abstract view|4|times       PDF download|0|times


Excessive water production impacts the economics of petroleum reservoir and often leads to their premature shut-in. Production of high saline water represents a major corrosion for casing, tubing, flow lines, and production facilities. Polymer solution has been used to control water production and to plug in high-temperature reservoirs. Most of these polymer solutions consist of polyacrylamide-based polymer and an organic or inorganic cross linker. Polyethylene mine has been used as an organic cross-linked for polyacrylamide. Literature reported that polyethylene mine can also form ringing gels with polyacrylamide copolymers in addition to polyacrylamide concentration. In this study, nano-chemical solutions has been prepared and studied in detail for their efficacy at reservoir condition. The compositions of the nano-chemicals mainly consisted of polyacrylamide mixed with nano particles, cement, coated-clay and polyethylene mine as cross-linker. The aim of using nano particles and coated-clay was to control gel performance and strength under the reservoir condition. Moreover, the effect of nano-chemical composition at higher temperature have been studied extensively on the gelation properties, elastic modulus, viscosity, and swelling ratio. Results showed that the elastic modulus and viscosity improve significantly with the increasing nano particle concentration. Coated-clay can control the gelation time as clay swallows and absorbs more formation water in the target zone, when its thin coated film breaks down, lesser water production can be predicted.

Cited as: Soka, S., Sidiq, H. Sensitivity analysis of parameters affecting nano-polymer solution for water shutoff in carbonate rocks. Advances in Geo-Energy Research, 2022, 6(3): 230-240.


Nano-polymer solution, polyacrylamide/polyethylene, cross-linker, water shut-off, polymer

Full Text:



Aalaie, J., Vasheghani-Farahani, E., Rahmatpour, A., et al. Effect of montmorillonite on gelation and swelling behavior of sulfonated polyacrylamide nanocomposite hydrogels in electrolyte solutions. European Polymer Journal, 2008, 44(7): 2024-2031.

Adewunmi, A. A., Ismail, S., Sultan, A. S. Crosslinked polyacrylamide composite hydrogels impregnated with fly ash: Synthesis, characterization and their application as fractures sealant for high water producing zones in oil and gas wells. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 2018, 26(8): 3294–3306.

Aifen, L., Haopeng, S., Haojun, X. Influence of inaccessible pore volume on seepage law of polymer flooding. Petroleum Geology and Recovery Efficiency, 2016, 2: 70-75.

Al-Dhafeeri, A., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Seright, R., et al. High-permeability carbonate zones (super-K) in Ghawar Field (Saudi Arabia): Identified, characterized, and evaluated for Gel treatments. Paper SPE 97542 Presented at International Improved Oil Recovery Conference in Asia Pacific, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 5-6 December, 2005.

Allison, J. D., Purkaple, J. D. Reducing permeability of highly permeable zones in underground formations, United States Patent, 1988.

Al-Muntasheri, G. A. Conformance control with polymer gels: What it takes to be successful. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 2012, 37(4): 1131-1141.

Al-Muntasheri, G. A., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Al-Noaimi, K. R., et al. A study of polyacrylamide-based gels crosslinked with polyethyleneimine. SPE Journal, 2009, 14(2): 245-251.

Al-Muntasheri, G. A., Sierra, L., Garzon, F., et al. Water shut-off with polymer gels in a high temperature horizontal gas well: a success story. Paper SPE 129848 Presented at Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 24-28 April, 2010.

Amiri, S. Preparation and characterization of nanoclay-based (Na-MMT and bentonite) polyacrylamide hydrogels as water shut-Off agent for enhanced oil recovery. Silicon, 2019, 11(3): 1193-1203.

Buchgraber, M. An enhanced oil recovery micromodel study with associative and conventional polymers. Leoben, University of Leoben, 2008.

Cai, S., He, X., Kun, L., et al. Interaction between HPAM and urea in aqueous solution and rheological properties. Iranian Polymer Journal, 2015, 24(8): 663-670.

El-Karsani, K. S. M., Al-Muntasheri, G. A., Sultan, A. S., et al. Gelation of a water-shutoff gel at high pressure and high temperature: rheological investigation. SPE Journal, 2015, 20(5): 1103-1112.

Fadil, N. A., Sonny, I., Isa, N. A. M., et al. Gelation behavior of polyacrylamide reinforced with nano-silica for water shutoff treatment in oil field. Solid State Phenomena, 2020, 307: 252-257.

Grattoni, C. A., Al-Sharji, H. H., Yang, C., et al. Rheology and permeability of crosslinked polyacrylamide gel. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2001, 240(2): 601-607.

Hardy, M., Botermancs, W., Hamouda, A., et al. The first carbonate field application of a new organically crosslinked water shutoff polymer system. Paper SPE 50738 Presented at International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, Texas, 13-16 February, 1999.

Helvacıoğlu, E., Aydin, V., Nugay, T., et al. High strength poly (acrylamide)-clay hydrogels. Journal of Polymer Research, 2011, 18(6): 2341-2350.

Jia, H., Zhao, J-Z., Jin, F-Y., et al. New insights into the gelation behavior of polyethyleneimine cross-linking partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide gels. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2012, 51(38): 12155-12166.

Jiang, Z., Cao, X., Li, Z., et al. Rheological behaviors and secondary networks of polyacrylamide hydrogel filled with silica. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 2016, 6(1): 93-99.

Lakatos, I. J., Lakatos-Szabo, J., Szentes, G., et al. New alternatives in conformance control: Nanosilica and liquid polymer aided silicate technology. Paper SPE 174225 Presented at European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition, Budapest, Hungary, 3-5 June, 2015.

Lashari, Z. A., Yang, H., Zhu, Z., et al. Experimental research of high strength thermally stable organic composite polymer gel. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2018, 263: 118-124.

Moradi-Araghi, A. A review of thermally stable gels for fluid diversion in petroleum production. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2000, 26(1-4): 1-10.

Moradi-Araghi, A., Bjornson, G., Doe, P. H. Thermally stable gels for near-wellbore permeability contrast corrections. SPE Advanced Technology Series, 1993, 1(1): 140-145.

Mousavifar, M. A., Kharrat, R., Parchizedeh, A., et al. Comparison between EOR methods (gas Injection, water injection and WAG processes) in one of Iranian Frac-tured oil reservoirs. International Journal of Engineering Science, 2012, 3(4): 503-507.

Okay, O., Oppermann, W. Polyacrylamide-clay nanocomposite hydrogels: Rheological and light scattering characterization. Macromolecules, 2007, 40(9): 3378-3387.

Omari, A. Rheological study of the gelation kinetics of the scleroglucan—zirconium system. Polymer, 1995, 36(4): 815-819.

Pereira, K. A. B., Aguiar, K. L. N., Oliveira, P. F., et al. Synthesis of hydrogel nanocomposites based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, polyethyleneimine, and modified clay. ACS Omega, 2020, 5(10): 4759-4769.

Qin, W., Krzysztof, W. A. Water problems and control techniques in heavy oils with bottom Aquifers. Paper SPE 125414 Presented at Americas E&P Environmental and Safety Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 23-25 March, 2009.

Seright, R. S., Lane, R. H., Sydansk, R. D. A strategy for attacking excess water production. SPE Production & Facilities, 2003, 18(3): 158-169.

Sheng, J. J. Polymer flooding—fundamentals and field cases, in Enhanced Oil Recovery Field Case Studies, edited by J. Sheng, Elsiver, Houston, pp. 63-82, 2013.

Sheng, J. J., Leonhardt, B., Azari, N. Status of polymer-flooding technology. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 2015, 54(2): 116-126.

Sidiq, H., Abdulsalam, V., Nabaz, Z. Reservoir simulation study of enhanced oil recovery by sequential polymer flooding method. Advances in Geo-Energy Research, 2019, 3(2): 115-121.

Sidiq, H. H., Amen, R., Kennaird, T. A laboratory investigation of water abatement chemicals for potential use in the wanaea oil field. Paper SPE 117142 Presented at Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 3-6 November, 2008.

Soka, S., Sidiq, H. Nano chemical design for excessive water production control in Taq Taq oil field. Paper SPE 208546 Presented at Eastern Europe Subsurface Conference, Kyiv, Ukraine, 23-24 November, 2021.

Standnes, D. C., Skjevrak, I. Literature review of implemented polymer field projects. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2014, 122: 761-775.

Sydansk, R. D., Southwell, G. P. More than 12 years’ experience with a successful conformance-control polymer-gel technology. SPE Production & Facilities, 2000, 15(4): 270-278.

Vega, I., Morris, W., Robles, J., et al. Water shut-off polymer systems: Design and efficiency evaluation based on experimental studies. Paper SPE 129940 Presented at Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 24-28 April, 2010.

Wang, Z. L. Zinc oxide nanostructures: Growth, properties and applications. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 2004, 16(25): R829-R858.

Xin, H., Ao, D., Wang, X., et al. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of copolymers of acrylamide with sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonate with nano silica structure. Colloid and Polymer Science, 2015, 293(5): 1307-1316.

Youssef, A. M., Yousef, H. A., El-Sayd, S. M., et al. Mechanical and antibacterial properties of novel high performance chitosan/nanocomposite films. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2015, 76: 25-32.

Zeyghami, M., Kharrat, R., Ghazanfari, M. H. Investigation of the applicability of nano silica particles as a thickening additive for polymer solutions applied in EOR processes. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 2014, 36(12): 1315-1324.

Zhao, G., Dai, C., Zhao, M., et al. Investigation of preparation and mechanisms of a dispersed particle gel formed from a polymer gel at room temperature. PLoS One, 2013, 8(12): e82651.

Zhao, G., Fang, J., Gao, B., et al. Study and application of the adsorption of anionic and cationic polymer. Oilfield Chemistry, 2015, 32: 62-66.

Zhu, D., Han, Y., Zhang, J., et al. Enhancing rheological properties of hydrophobically associative polyacrylamide aqueous solutions by hybriding with silica nanoparticles. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2014, 131(19): 40876.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright ©2018. All Rights Reserved